Abstract Chevron In the Nordic countries, there are increasing concerns for the growing number of young people who are in neither education nor employment who are simultaneously struggling with mental health issues. These are challenges that cut across different welfare policy areas. This article is based on experiences from the youth group and the challenges they describe in their everyday lives, as well as accounts from public authorities and the welfare services in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway.
The article is based on qualitative interviews with 22 young people and 58 practitioners within the welfare authorities and services in Norway, Iceland and the Faroe Islands, conducted in and The authorities and service areas represented are public employment services, education, social services and health. The young people that are included in the study have in common that they have not completed or never started education, they have weak or no ties to the employment market and most also articulate having mental health challenges.
Our findings show that the authorities of the three countries only to a limited extent coordinate their policies and services to this group of young people. Those who are capable of attending to the complex needs of the youth are, rather, individual actors, so-called enthusiasts, working closely around the youth and in extensive collaboration with other services. Keywords: youth, welfare services, coordination, collaboration, Nordic Introduction In the Nordic countries there are growing concerns for the group of young people who drop out of education, are jobless and who have mental health problems.
These are challenges that pertain to, while at the same time cut across different welfare policy areas. As a point of departure the article considers experiences both from the young people and the challenges they describe in daily life, and from authorities and support services in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway.
We discuss how public welfare actors in the three Nordic countries can be better prepared to meet and protect this group of young people. We provide examples of so-called «enthusiasts» who are able to help the young out of their distinct and complex situations. These «enthusiasts» are characterised, among other things, by having sector-wide skills and experience that give them the scope to go iveland speed dating norway their own roles and mandates.
The article is iveland speed dating norway on qualitative interview studies conducted in tananger gay dating with young people in the target group and with representatives of authorities and support iveland speed dating norway in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway.
Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway as modern welfare states Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway all have iveland speed dating norway common that they are demographically small countries to the west of the Nordic region.
They are referred to as «welfare-aspirational», whereby the authorities attempt to the greatest degree possible to meet the social, health and economic needs of the citizens Rugkåsa This is done through active welfare and labour market policies coupled with a clear mission and goal.
Welfare payments are designed in order to stimulate work rather than a dependence on state benefits.
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At the same time the state offers schemes that compensate for loss of work income. The Faroe Islands are an autonomous region that formally belongs to Denmark, but one that has extensive autonomy. The Faroe Islands themselves are responsible for the major welfare service areas. Here the problem areas are specialised and structured according to sector.
The central welfare sectors that we have studied in iveland speed dating norway three Nordic countries are employment, education, health and social services. Even though there are certain differences between the countries, with regard to the level to which the services are offered and the type of measures provided to the target group, the wider picture is that the countries are relatively similarly organised, with well-developed welfare services.
For OECD member nations, mental disorders constitute the single largest determinant of disability benefits in their populations Albæk et al. Participation in working life is considerably lower among people with mental disorders compared to the general population. The relationship between mental health problems, school dropouts and poor connections to working life among the young encompasses several different marginalisation processes Bremer ; Due et al.
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Markussen and Seland ibid. These are all situations that take a toll and are a burden on both society and the individual. We do this by gaining insight into the challenges that young people experience in their life situations, and by looking closer at the various service single klubb i balestrand that hold responsibility for policy over the young.
Although the young people in our studies are often users of iveland speed dating norway public services, their own descriptions seldom focus on the quality of or needs addressed towards specific services. This view becomes particularly relevant and interesting when it is seen in parallel with a top-down look from the welfare policy area.
NPM is typified by both horizontal and vertical specialisation and fragmentation of public institutions. The emphasis on control, through hierarchical goal management, can temporarily allow vertical loyalties in their various forms to hinder horizontal interactions between silos and service providers Vike Partly as a consequence of NPM reforms, there has in recent years been increased focus on interaction.
In this regard we want to distinguish between two forms of interaction: coordination and collaboration. Coordination can be seen as procedures designed to create interaction between authorities. Verhoest and Bouckaert understand coordination as the «purposeful aligning of units to achieve a defined goal» ibid: We use the term «coordination» for when authorities interact by adapting tasks and efforts in order to solve societal problems that cannot be solved within existing organisational structures.
While we will use «coordination» to describe interaction at single kvinner i stad authority level, we will apply the term «collaboration» for interaction between service providers.
Methodological approach The article is based on qualitative interviews with 22 young people and 58 actors within the welfare iveland speed dating norway, conducted in Iceland, the Faroe Islands and northern Norway in — The young people who participated in the interviews were between 17 meløy single damer 28 years old, with most being around 19 or Of these, 13 were women and iveland speed dating norway were men, from various backgrounds.
Important selection criteria were young people who were not in regular education iveland speed dating norway regular work, and who experience mental health-related challenges.
In the Norwegian part of the study we used the county-level follow-up service as a door opener. In Iceland and the Faroe Islands we came into contact with the young people through key persons in the national welfare administration. When it comes to the welfare systems, we interviewed service providers and authorities but not authorities in Norway. The specific areas here are education, employment, social services and health, at both the local and national level.
In Iceland and the Faroe Islands we conducted interviews in the capital regions and in one district. In Norway we conducted interviews in two geographically and demographically different municipalities.
The interviews were conducted either in a Scandinavian language Norwegian or Danish or in English. Each individual interview lasted between one and three hours. Audio recordings were taken of most of the interviews. In this article we have coded and categorised the data from the interviews with the young people with themes such as background and circumstances during childhood, relations with adult family, the help enslig i vestland, school and working life, their current situations and daily lives, together with thoughts on the future.
The categories follow the main structure of the guide to semi-structured interviews. The data from the welfare system interviews are coded according to themes such as the organisation of welfare services, the types of measures directed towards iveland speed dating norway target group, the organisation of measures and procedures, and cooperation and obstacles in the work directed towards the target group.
Young and excluded The interviews with the young people show that, across all the countries, they experience some common challenges that begin predominantly with issues in childhood and adolescence. In the descriptions of this, there are tales of family relationships — especially disruptions in the form of divorce and relocation — bullying, loneliness, experiences of being different, abuse and difficulties with learning and concentration, across all three countries.
The experience of feeling excluded and different is the hallmark of lurøy single speed ordeals. One of the Norwegian women says that, kvalsund singel lower secondary school, she was seen to be «weird-different, instead of cool-different.
For one of the young men from Iceland, bullying was something that followed him throughout his school career: «The bullying and I got, kind of, friends. When she got there, it felt like a relief: «Then I got some peace.
She thinks that it is difficult to tell her parents what she has been through. She describes loneliness as: «There is only me. Myself is all I have. They have come across few adults who have seen them, taken responsibility and helped them through difficult circumstances in their adolescence, or who have taken steps in ways that have contributed to single jenter i volda positive change.
Many continue to struggle with weak relationships of trust up to this day.
Several of these include self-harming, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, eating disorders and, for some, substance abuse. Amongst the young people iveland speed dating norway spoke to, particularly in the Faroe Islands but also in Iceland, many have been very seriously mentally ill before it has been recognised and helped.
Across all the countries the young people sense that failing to rebuild a life is a shameful defeat. Both men and women spoke of shame and guilt as an obstacle for sharing their difficulties with others. Many describe having a close relationship with their families, while at the same time not being able to be completely open about the difficulties they are going through.
They also feel it is shameful and problematic not to be able to attend school or work, despite the support services making it easier for them.
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They would rather not cause more problems. One of the young Norwegian women talks about all the help she has received, from student iveland speed dating norway and teachers in upper secondary school, from NAVchild services and the psychiatrist.
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In spite of this she was nevertheless unable to stay in school or in a work placement. Just that I was there at work and that NAV was paying me to be there, you know. I felt, well, I felt so stupid. Of the 22 young people in the studies, only two had completed upper secondary education. The majority had dropped out of upper secondary education because of demanding life situations. This was mainly due to struggles with poor mental health, a lack of selfbelief and in the possibilities of emerging from difficult, entrenched situations.
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At the time of the interviews, 15 of the 22 young people were participating to varying degrees in different activation measures or work placements overseen by the employment office, the social office or by NAV. These were taking place either in normal working life, in vocational schools or under other youth activation procedures. Some young people expressed the view that the measures were pointless.
At the same time, they all thought that it was a good thing to have «an alternative to being at home,» as one of the young Icelandic men expresses it. In this context there are several factors that are highlighted as important: to receive an offer tailored to current circumstances in their lives; having understanding employers and colleagues; having a good work environment and meaningful tasks and duties. Daily life is often described as more meaningful and active than it is by those who isolate themselves at home.
Some of these «home-sitters» nevertheless attempt to create structure and routine in daily life, encompassing sleep, meal times and housework. Others, iveland speed dating norway those in the middle of mentally tough periods, struggle just to get through the day. As one of the young Norwegian women says: «I am almost tired of being tired.
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Several struggle too with overpowering depression that sucks life and energy out of them. One of the Icelandic women describes it thus: «if I am awake, I try to sleep again.
At the same time, if I get up, I have to feel that I am alive. Some have hope for a different, better situation and think that it is good to have a plan and a goal of independent adult life. Others have «future anxiety» and think the future is frightening and awful to think about. They feel weary of the hopeless situation they find themselves in.
For the majority, life is on hold and the future seems to be beyond their horizon. The longer they have been stuck iveland speed dating norway these entrenched situations, the more hopeless and difficult the individual perceives it. As one of the young Icelandic men sums it up: «Big things in life are difficult.
One of the Norwegian women describes it thus: I don't dare to plan for tomorrow because I don't know if I will have the will to survive until then.
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So when people ask me about where I see myself in five years, I don't know, I like iveland speed dating norway a grave, a gravestone. So I never think about it, I never answer the question because I don't know what I should say. In summary, the young people that we interviewed all share that they have dropped out of school, or never started upper secondary schooling, they have weak or non-existent connections to working life, and the majority express challenges with mental health.
The difficulties that the young people describe around their current situations have principally emerged from difficult childhoods and adolescence — contexts that continue to characterize them, in different ways, up to the present day. What distinguishes them is that, amongst the young people who we spoke to, particularly in the Faroe Islands but also in Iceland, most were very seriously mentally ill before it was recognised.
There are also concerns that the number of young people who are struggling with their mental health — especially in the form of stress, anxiety and depression — appears to be on the rise.
At the same iveland speed dating norway there exist very few statistics on the relationship between mental health and upper secondary school dropout rates, particularly so in Iceland and the Singel treff myre Islands. Through the interviews certain differences between the countries emerge. A significant difference is that work and social services have been merged into NAV in Norway, which means that social issues are less prominent in the interviews in Norway than in the other two countries.
Furthermore, the Faroe Islands have lesser-developed local mental health services. In its monitoring of young people who are on the verge of dropping out of upper secondary school, Norway engages its follow-up service, which has specific responsibility for this group. Iveland speed dating norway other two countries do not have an equivalent.
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In Iceland and the Faroe Islands there is somewhat less oversight of what is happening iveland speed dating norway this young group. In Iceland and the Faroe Islands we find very few examples of coordinated, dominant or cross-sectoral policies to meet the challenges of this young group. An exception is found in the Faroe Islands, where the Department of Health was in the process of initiating increased coordination between the health, social services and education sectors. This government's governing agreement puts a lot of emphasis on closer cooperation.
This will put children and the young in focus so that they don't have to consult so many different authorities; rather, the services come to them. So the minister [Department of Health] appointed a group to work on it.
Ministerial employee, Faroe Islands Apart from the Faroe Islands we do not find examples of coordination between the health sector and other sectors, neither nationally nor locally. The few examples that we find of interaction that includes the health sector involve collaboration between service providers.
We found one such example at an upper secondary school in Norway, where student services had established a prevention team working around and with the monitoring of students struggling with psychosocial issues.
The team consists of a school nurse, a social education advisor and a coordinator for follow-up service.
They collaborate by quickly and closely following up students with psychosocial issues. Amongst other things, the school nurse says the following: […] if I have someone who is very sick of school and really cannot bare to attend.