Both the notion that archival sources necessarily reflect Saami presence and the trust in ethnonyms are refuted.
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These notions still have repercussions in court decisions and historical narratives. The chapter is based on studies of the Norwegian census compared with church registers contemporary with the census from areas on both sides of the present Nordland—Trøndelag county borders in Norway. Comparison with the church registers shows that ethnonyms are inconsistent.
Often, the census and the church registers did not register the same people as Saami, and there are more people registered as Saami in church registers than in the census. I explain the erratic registration of the Saami by interpreting it as an expression speed dating i åndalsnes an identification process, as exclusion and inclusion of the Saami by others as well as a part of colonialism.
It exemplifies why non-indigenous sources should be critically interpreted, and dating norway i vefsn identification of ethnicity constitutes a challenge.
I suggest that the census cannot be treated as a census of the South Saami.
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Iktedimmie Tjaalege digkede man åvteste dïhte nöörjen almetjeryökneme jaepeste lea akte muevies gaaltije dan åarjelsaemien histovrijasse. Daah dïejvesh annje konsekvensh utnieh reakta-aamhtesisnie jïh histovrijes soptsesinie.
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Tjaalegen våarome lea dïhte nöörjen almetjeryökneme jaepeste viertiestamme gærhkoegærjan daajbaaletje almetjeryökneminie dejstie dajvijste gåabpegen bielesne dehtie daaletje Nordlaanten—Trööndelagen fylhkenraasteste Nöörjesne. Viertiestimmie gærhkoegærjajgujmie vuesehte etnihkeles dating norway i vefsn sinsitnien vööste strijrieh.
Daamtaj almetjeryökneme jïh gærhkoegærjah eah dejtie seamma almetjidie saemine registreredh, jïh jienebh almetjh leah registreradamme goh saemieh gærhkoegærjine goh almetjeryöknemisnie.
Manne dam joekehts registreradimmiem saemijste tjïelkestem viehkine dam toelhkestidh goh akte identiteeteprosessese, goh ålkoestimmie jïh feerhmeme saemijste mubpijste, jïh goh akte bielie kolonialismeste. Daate vuesehte man åvteste edtja gaaltijh laejhtehkslaakan toelhkestidh mah eah aalkoealmetjijstie båetieh, jïh guktie identifikasjovne etnisiteeteste akte haesteme sjædta.
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Manne raerestem almetjeryökneme jaepeste ij maehtieh åtnasovvedh goh akte almetjeryökneme åarjelsaemijste. Footnote 1 My first aim with this chapter is to clarify how the Norwegian —census is a problematic source for South Saami history when interpreted from a positivistic or empiricist point of view. This is a criticism of assumptions about single damer løten source validity and reliability when using non-Saami sources to research Saami history, especially in relation to the particular historiography of Norwegian and Swedish historical research in the South Saami area.
My second aim is to contribute to a better understanding of how non-indigenous sources can be critically interpreted and how identification of ethnicity constitutes a challenge. Since the late s, a hypothesis of their late immigration in the s and s into large parts of their traditional lands in Sweden and Norway gained foothold among Swedish and Norwegian academics.
Footnote 2 This hypothesis was coined during the same period that social Darwinism, colonization, forced assimilation and reindeer grazing laws increasingly undermined Saami society. Saami researchers and institutions and some Swedish and Norwegian researchers have dating norway i vefsn this hypothesis.
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But over the years, it has been supported by influential Swedish and Norwegian historians and researchers e. Haarstad Along with a general disinterest in Saami issues, this hypothesis seems to have resulted in the exclusion of Saami topics and questions from historical research and narratives in southern Scandinavia. The hypothesis dating norway i vefsn immigration excluded dating norway i vefsn existence of Saami history in large areas.
Thus, this hypothesis and the lack of acknowledgement of Saami historical narratives have served as support for colonialism Falkenberg ; Jünge ; Kosmoand thereby court decisions against Saami rights to land, for example, Härjedalsdomen in Sweden and Trollheimensaken in Norway Härjedalsdomen and Trollheimensaken were court decisions on Saami land rights where Norwegian and Swedish landowners contested Saami rights to reindeer herding on private land.
History played a key part in the court decisions because the question of land rights had to be answered through historical evidence. The Saami lost in both cases. In mainstream Norwegian and Swedish research, historians in general have not taken any particular interest in South Saami history, and Saami history has been variably included in historical narratives.
Most often the perspective has been non-Saami, and this has been the case even when the intention was otherwise Sem Often, the under-representation of Saami history is ascribed to a lack of sources e.
Bull and Stugu dating norway i vefsn My opinion is that several Norwegian historians working with South Saami history, some quite lightly I have to claim, have seen the question of sources as naïvely unproblematic in an empiricist or positivistic way Haarstadpp. Here, criticism from indigenous theories seems to fit well, part of which points to how traditional positivist approaches to research stem from and serve non-indigenous concerns.
Another part of the criticism points to the need to contest notions of objectivity and neutrality Denzin and Lincolnp.
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Traditional archival written sources have been seen as trustworthy in the sense that they are believed to reflect Saami presence if the Saami were there. Thus, the lack of any mention of Saami in sources has been interpreted as a lack of Saami presence.
This is at the core of the hypothesis of late immigration.
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For example, the emphasis has been placed on the presence of ethnonyms to identify Saami individuals in such sources as church registers Haarstadp. The trust in the ethnonyms has been infallible.
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This view has been incorporated in court rulings against Saami rights as seen below in the decision in the Trollheimen case of … it is ruled out that — even after a considerable research effort — the presence of such a Saami population can be detected in this area. In that case this Saami population must have left traces in other historical sources, now fully available, e.
The Supreme Court of Norway My translation Another argument is simply that there are no or too few sources Bull Therefore, it is impossible to write in more detail about South Saami history or refute the hypothesis of late immigration.
An approach based on basic knowledge of Saami culture and insights from decolonizing methodology or indigenous theories, for example, does not seem to have been part of the apparatus e. This was the first census in Norway that was supposed to include the entire population, and it is considered rather accurate The National Archives of Norway, n.
There seems to be an dating norway i vefsn that the registration of the South Saami in the census is trustworthy, and it has not been critically examined. Numbers from the census have been used for comparison, even though authors in some cases have noted that especially the reindeer nomads were not always included Bullpp. I have studied the registration of the Saami in several parts of the South Saami area.
My conclusion is that the census is highly problematic as a source for South Saami history.