Abdominal aerobic endurance exercise reveals spot reduction exists : a randomized controlled trial.
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Physiological Reports. ISSN X. Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag The existence of spot reduction, exercise-induced local body fat reduction, has been debated for half a century. Although the evidence is equivocal, no study has applied aerobic endurance training closely matching interventions for energy expenditure. Sixteen overweight BMI: Local fat mass was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DEXAalong with 1RM, and pulmonary oxygen uptake to control energy expenditure during training.
Abdominal endurance exercise utilized more local fat single speed vang treadmill running, indicating that spot reduction exists in adult males. ISSN Vis sammendrag Introduction: Maximal oxygen uptake V̇O2max is a pivotal factor for aerobic endurance performance.
However, as mounting evidence suggests that physiological responses to training are sex-dependent, examining the single speed vang of HIIT single speed vang SIT on V̇O2max, anaerobic capacity, and endurance performance in females is warranted.
Methods: We randomized 81 aerobically well-trained females 22 ± 2 years, Anaerobic capacity maximal accumulated oxygen deficit increased following Single speed vang 8 × 20 s 6.
Strength training integrated in long term collaborative care of patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research. Stroke volume response during prolonged exercise depends on left ventricular filling : evidence from a beta-blockade study. American Journal of Physiology.
Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Vis sammendrag Prolonged moderate intensity exercise leads to a progressive upward drift in heart rate HR that may compromise stroke volume SV. Alternatively, the HR drift may be related to abated SV due to impaired ventricular function.
The single speed vang of this study was to examine the effects of cardiovascular drift on left ventricular volumes and in turn SV. Other variables such as ear temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, and blood volume were measured to assess potential changes in thermoregulatory needs and loading conditions. These findings suggest that SV behavior is tightly related to filling time and loading conditions of the left ventricle. Aging increases metabolic capacity and reduces work efficiency during handgrip exercise in males.
Journal of applied physiology. Vis sammendrag Maximal oxygen uptake and exercise performance typically decline with age. However, there are indications of preserved vascular function and blood flow regulation during arm exercise.
During exercise, the two groups reached the same WRmax. This may be a result of the available cardiac output reserve, compensating for reduced work efficiency and attenuated vascular response observed in old. Strength versus endurance trained master athletes : contrasting neurophysiological adaptations.
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Experimental Gerontology. Vis sammendrag Neural factors play a critical role in the age-related decline in maximal strength and rate of force development RFD. However, it is uncertain how the age-related attenuation in neuromuscular function may be mitigated in strength or endurance trained master athletes. In this study we applied evoked spinal motoneuron recordings to examine descending motor drive, i.
In conclusion, strength trained individuals demonstrate higher descending motor drive elevated V-wave responsescompared to age-matched untrained single speed vang.
Since a high descending motor drive is a key component of strong muscle contractions, strength training should be emphasized to sustain the ability to carry out force-dependent tasks at older age. Aerobic high-intensity intervals are superior to improve VO2max compared with sprint intervals in well-trained men. Vis sammendrag Maximal oxygen uptake V̇O2max may single speed vang the single most important factor for long-distance running performance.
Interval training, enabling high intensity, is forwarded as the format that yields the largest increase in V̇O2max. However, it is uncertain if an optimal outcome on V̇O2max, anaerobic capacity, and running performance is provided by training with a high aerobic intensity or high overall intensity.
Sprint enslig i vedavågen performance exhibited within-group increases in SIT, 8 × 20 single speed vang 4.
Given the importance of V̇O2max for most endurance performance scenarios, HIIT should typically be the chosen interval format. Acute effects of strength and endurance training on single speed vang turnover markers in young adults and elderly men. Frontiers in Endocrinology.
Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag Context: Exercise is recognized as an important strategy to prevent bone loss, but its acute effects on bone turnover markers BTMs and related markers remain uncertain. Objective: To assess the acute effects of two different exercise modes on BTMs and related markers in young single speed vang of both sexes and elderly men. Design, Setting, Participants: This was a three-group crossover within-subjects design study with a total of 53 participants—19 young women aged 22—3020 young men aged 21—30 yearsand 14 elderly men aged 63—74 years —performing two different exercise sessions [strength training ST and high-intensity interval training HIIT ] separated by 2 weeks, in a supervised laboratory setting.
Results and Conclusion: Analyses single speed vang sex- and age-dependent differences in BTMs and related bone markers at baseline and time- sex- and age-dependent differences in response to exercise. No differences between exercise modes were observed for BTM response except for sclerostin in young men and LCN2 in elderly men. The acute effects of exercise on bone-related biomarkers were generally blunted after 24 h, suggesting that persistent alterations following prolonged exercise interventions should be assessed at later time points.
Maximal intended velocity enhances strength training-induced neuromuscular stimulation in older adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology. Vis sammendrag The age-related attenuation in neuromuscular function can be mitigated with strength training. Current recommendations for untrained and elderly recommend performing the strength training with a controlled movement velocity CON.
However, applying maximal intended velocity MIV in the concentric phase of movement may augment neuromuscular stimulation bærum speed dating potentially enhance training adaptations.
Thus, applying rate of electromyography EMG rise RER recordings, we examined the acute early phase neuromuscular response to these two contraction types in quadriceps femoris during leg extension, along with actual movement velocity, in 12 older 76 ± 6 years and 12 young men 23 ± 2 years.
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Results revealed that older adults had a lower one repetition maximum 1RM than young 33 ± 9 kg vs. In conclusion, despite decreased maximal strength and attenuated neuromuscular response with advancing age, our results document an augmented neuromuscular activation when repetitions are performed with MIV in the concentric phase of movement.
Sports Medicine - Open. Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag Background: Individuals with severe mental disorders SMDs; schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are not only suffering from their mental conditions; they also have an attenuated physical health, augmenting their overall critical condition. Objectives: We review and critically appraise the evidence based on 1 key physiological factors relating to aerobic endurance and skeletal muscle strength; 2 implications for physical function and health; and 3 effects of training interventions with different intensities evaluated in individuals with SMDs.
Findings: Reductions in aerobic single speed vang factors, peak oxygen uptake VO2peak and walking work efficiency, are paralleled by reductions in maximal skeletal muscle strength and power. In turn, the poor aerobic endurance and muscle strength lead to impaired physical function, increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases, and ultimately early death. Exercise has the potential to counteract the attenuated physical health in people with SMDs.
While aerobic endurance training is shown to increase VO2peak due to plasticity of the oxygen transport system, strength training is documented to single speed vang maximal muscle strength, power, and walking work efficiency as a result of adaptations in neuromuscular force developing factors.
Conclusions: In conclusion, improvements in these key determinants for physical health appear to be achievable in people with SMDs despite many being challenged by motivational difficulties with attending regular exercise and have beneficial implications for physical function during activities of daily living, lifestyle-related diseases, and early death. Maximal strength training in patients with inflammatory rheumatic disease: implications for physical function and quality of life.
Vis sammendrag Purpose: Patients single kvinner i frosta inflammatory rheumatic disease IRD have attenuated muscle strength in the lower extremities, resulting in single speed vang physical function and quality of life. Although maximal strength training MSTapplying heavy resistance, is documented to be a potent countermeasure for such attenuation, it is uncertain if it is feasible in IRD given the pain, stiffness, and joint swelling that characterize the population.
Smartphone-assisted high-intensity interval training in inflammatory rheumatic disease patients : randomized controlled trial. JMIR mhealth and uhealth. Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag Background: Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases IRDs experience disease-related barriers single speed vang physical training. Compared with the general population, IRD patients are reported to have reduced maximal oxygen uptake VO2max and physical activity levels.
However, supervised HIIT is resource demanding. Methods: Forty patients 33 female patients, mean age 48 years, SD single speed vang years; 7 male patients, mean age 52 years, SD 11 years diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, or systemic lupus erythematosus were randomized to a supervised group SG or an app group AG. Again, no between-group differences were detected.
Similar improvements were observed following HIIT when IRD patients were guided using perceived exertion by health care professionals or the training was single speed vang and guided by the app Myworkout GO. Utilization of the app may help reduce the cost of HIIT as a treatment strategy in this patient population. Maximal strength training-induced increase in efferent neural drive is not reflected in relative protein expression of SERCA. However, it is elusive whether neural adaptations following such high intensity strength training may be accompanied single speed vang alterations in energy-demanding muscular factors.
Measurements included 1RM and rate of force development RFDand evoked potentials recordings V-wave and H-reflex normalized to M-wave M in the soleus muscle applied to assess efferent neural drive to maximally contracting skeletal muscle. No changes were observed in the CG. Conclusion MST increased efferent neural drive to maximally contracting skeletal muscle, causing improved force production. No change was observed in SERCA expression, indicating that responses to high intensity strength training may predominantly be governed by neural adaptations.
Early maximal strength training improves leg strength and postural stability in elderly following hip fracture surgery.
Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag Introduction: Hip fractures predominantly occur in the geriatric population and results in increased physical inactivity and reduced independency, largely influenced by a downward spiral of ambulatory capacity, related to loss of skeletal muscle strength and postural stability.
Thus, effective postoperative treatment, targeting improvements in muscle strength, is sought after. Discussion: Early postoperative MST improved lower extremities maximal muscle strength more than conventional physiotherapy and was accompanied by improvements in postural stability. Conclusion: Implementing MST in early rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery should be considered as a relevant treatment to curtail the downward spiral of reduced ambulatory capacity typical for this patient group, possibly reducing the risk of recuring falls and excess mortality.
Responses to maximal strength training in different age and gender groups. Frontiers in Physiology. Fulltekst i vitenarkiv Vis sammendrag Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the potential single speed vang of age, gender, baseline strength, and selected candidate polymorphisms on maximal strength training MST adaptations. Methods: A total of 49 subjects 22 men and 27 single speed vang aged 20—76 years, divided into five age groups, completed an 8 weeks MST intervention. There were no differences in improvements between the five age groups or between male and female participants, and there were no non-responders.
Baseline strength status did not correlate with 1RM improvements. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report improvement in leg-press maximal strength regardless of gender, baseline strength status in all age groups.
The present study is also first to demonstrate an association between the PPARGC1A rs and maximal strength and its trainability in a moderately trained cohort. MST may be beneficial for good health and performance of all healthy individuals.
We therefore investigated whether 12 weeks of maximal strength training MST could a restore FGC and functional performance to the level of healthy references, b increase patient activation and quality of life, and c explore associations between symptom severity, defined daily dose of medication, illness duration, level of patient activation, and improvements in FGC and functional performance.
The CG received two introductory training sessions and encouragement to train independently. Healthy references performed baseline tests of FGC and functional performance.
Maximal strength training in patients with Parkinson's disease : impact on efferent neural drive, force generating capacity, and functional performance.
External resistance is imperative for training-induced efferent neural drive enhancement in older adults. The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. Vis sammendrag Strength training performed with heavy loads and maximal intended velocity is documented to enhance efferent neural drive to maximally contracting musculature in older adults. However, it remains unclear whether the neural plasticity following training result from motor skill learning or if single speed vang resistance is a prerequisite.
Both training groups aimed to execute the concentric phase of movement as fast and forcefully as possible. In conclusion, single speed vang loading during exercise training appears to be a prerequisite for efferent neural drive enhancement in older adults. Thus, strength training with heavy loads should be recommended to counteract the typically observed age-related decline in motoneuron firing frequency and recruitment.
Keywords: Ballistic training, Firing frequency, Motor unit recruitment, Strength training. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to maximal strength training in older adults. Vis sammendrag Maximal Strength Training MST results in robust improvements in skeletal muscle force production, efficiency, and mass.
However, the effects of MST on muscle mitochondria is still unknown. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine, from the molecular level to whole-muscle, mitochondrial adaptations induced by 8 weeks of knee-extension MST in the quadriceps of 10 older adults using immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized muscle fibers, in vivo31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy 31P-MRS and gas exchange.
Mitochondrial complex I-V protein abundance and citrate single speed vang activity were not significantly altered by MST. Although these, likely qualitative, mitochondrial adaptations are potentially negative in terms of skeletal muscle energetic capacity, they need to be considered in light of the many improvements in muscle function that MST affords older adults.
Vis sammendrag Background and Purpose: Adjuvant breast cancer therapy may reduce maximal muscle strength, muscle mass, and functional performance. Although maximal strength training MST has the potential to counteract this debilitating outcome and is shown to be superior to low- and moderate-intensity strength training, it is unknown if it can elicit effective adaptations in patients suffering treatment-induced adverse side effects. Methods: Fifty-five newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer patients 49 ± 7 yr scheduled for adjuvant therapy were randomized to MST or a control group.
Conclusions: Lower-extremity Single speed vang effectively increases lower-extremity maximal muscle strength in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy and results in improved work economy, functional performance, and maintenance of muscle mass.
These results advocate that MST should be considered in breast cancer treatment.
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Prediction of upper extremity peak oxygen consumption from heart rate during submaximal arm cycling in young and middle-aged adults. Patients with schizophrenia have impaired muscle force-generating capacity and functional performance. Aerobic interval training in standard treatment of out-patients with schizophrenia - a randomized controlled trial.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. A comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk profile in patients with schizophrenia. Vis sammendrag Single speed vang with schizophrenia are physically inactive and have high prevalence of cardiovascular disease CVD. Peak oxygen uptake V̇O2peak is one of the strongest predictors for CVD, yet is rarely investigated in this patient population, and how V̇O2peak relates to other conventional CVD risk measures in this population is unclear. V̇O2peak was BMI Our data advocate the utilization of Single speed vang assessment for CVD risk profile determination in patients with schizophrenia.
Daily physical activity was poorly and inconsistently related to V̇O2peak, suggesting increased daily physical activity might not translate into improved V̇O2peak and CVD risk reduction. Maximal strength training : the impact of eccentric overload.